Steam generators or boilers use heat to convert water into steam for a variety of applications. Primary among these are electric power generation and industrial process heating. Steam is a key resource because of its wide availability, advantageous properties and nontoxic nature. Steam flow rates and operating conditions are the principal design considerations for any steam generator and can vary dramatically from 1000 1b/h (0.1 Kg/S) in one process use to more than 10 millions 1b/h 1260 Kg/s in large electric power plants from about 14.7 psi ( 0.1013 MPa) and 212F (100°C) in some heating applications to more than 4500 psi (31.03 MPa) and 1100F (593 °C) in advanced cycle power plants.
General boiler operations Fundamental principles
Combustion safety and steam/water cooling requirements before firing a furnace, there must be no lingering combustible material inside the unit. Purging or removal of this material assures that the furnace is ready for firing. A standard operating rule for multiple burner boilers is to purge the unit at no less than 25% of the maximum continuous rating (MCR) mass air flow for the greater of at least five minutes or five volume charges.
Once combustion is established, the correct air/fuel ratio must be maintained. Insufficient air flow may permit the formation of combustible gas pockets and provide an explosion potential. Sufficient air flow to match the combustion requirements of the fuel should be maintained and a small amount of excess air should be admitted to cover imperfect mixing and to promote air and fuel distribution. For emissions reduction, many newer firing systems are staged with overfire air (OFA) ports installed in the upper combustion zones of the furnace. The controlled introduction of combustion air does not eliminate the need to provide adequate operating excess air for safety.
Boilers are supplied to:
•Oil & Gas refineries
•Hospitals & Households
We supply complete new, sub assemblies or repair for:
•Super heaters & Reheaters
•Economizers & Air heaters
•Burners & Air registers
•Valves & Piping
•Auxiliaries as pumps & fans
•Instrumentation & Control systems